Urological Emergencies

UTI’s in Adults Prostatitis Renal Calculi Bladder (Vesical) Calculi Acute Scrotal Pain Acute Urinary Retention Hematuria

Renal colic mimics

  Some mimics of renal colic that may arrive at the ED include: upper UTI’s, ectopic pregnancies, ovarian torsion, adnexal masses, testicular torsion, acute aortic syndromes, renal artery aneurysms, renal infarction, splenic infarction, bowel obstruction, diverticulitis, appendicitis, biliary colic, cholecystitis, acute intestinal ischemia, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, retroperitoneal hematoma, iliopsoas abscess. Focused history and physical exam […]

UTI Myths and Misconceptions

UTI is a clinical diagnosis, not a laboratory one. Dysuria plus urinary frequency in the absence of symptoms of STI is diagnostic. Most patients with a clinical picture consistent with a lower UTI do not require urine tests. The indications for urine tests for suspected lower UTI include immunocompromised patients, history of multiple courses of antimicrobial […]


A clinician (or parent/carer with supervision) rubs the suprapubic area of the child ( 1-12 months) in a circular pattern with gauze soaked in cold saline held with forceps until clean catch urine sample is obtained.  

UTI Myths

Myth 1: The Urine Is Cloudy and Smells Bad. My Patient Has a UTI Myth 2: The Urine Has Bacteria Present. My Patient Has a UTI. Also See Myth 8 Myth 3: My Patient’s Urine Sample Has >5 Squamous Epithelial Cells per Low-Power Field and the Culture is Positive. Because the Culture is Positive, I […]

Paediatric UTIs

If the child is unwell, culture them as you think is appropriate and treat. In well appearing children, UTI does not seem to cause long term renal problems and the risk of sepsis is incredibly low. In well appearing children, there does not appear to be a difference between starting antibiotics for UTI on the […]

Emergency Medicine Kenya Foundation

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