- UTI is a clinical diagnosis, not a laboratory one. Dysuria plus urinary frequency in the absence of symptoms of STI is diagnostic.
- Most patients with a clinical picture consistent with a lower UTI do not require urine tests.
- The indications for urine tests for suspected lower UTI include immunocompromised patients, history of multiple courses of antimicrobial therapy, history of antibiotic resistance and history of multiple drug allergies.
- While bacteria seen on microscopy is predictive of a positive culture, it is not necessarily diagnostic of a UTI as the positive culture could represent a contaminant or asymptomatic bacteriuria.
- A common pitfall is treating non-pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria with antibiotics. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common in all age groups and is often misdiagnosed as a UTI.
- Do not routinely treat catheterized patients found to have pyuria or candida in their urine.
- A common pitfall is to assume that the cause of altered level of awareness in an elderly is a UTI upon finding pyuria or bacteriuria on urinalysis leading to premature closure and missing a more serious diagnosis.
- Imaging is not routinely required for patients suspected clinically of pyelonephritis.
- Cranberry juice, direction of wiping and voiding post intercourse are not effective in preventing recurrent UTIs
- 3-5 days duration of therapy is sufficient for the vast majority of lower UTI
It takes a minimum of two people to perform this procedure. However, it is better with three, one dedicated to making the catch.
- Encourage oral fluid intake.
- 25 minutes following this feed, the baby/infants genitals are cleaned thoroughly with warm soapy water and dried with sterile gauze.
- A sterile container is prepared to collect the specimen.
- Baby is held under the armpits (just above the bed) with legs dangling (the parents can easily assist with this).
- The nurse then starts bladder stimulation which consists of gentle tapping in the suprapubic area at a rate of 100 taps per minute for 30 seconds.
- Next, the lumbar paravertebral zone (think the small of the lower back) is massaged in a light circular motion for 30 seconds.
- Step 5 and six are repeated until urine is released.
Stand clear & catch the mid-stream.