The 2020 Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) are a comprehensive revision of the AHA’s guidelines for adult, pediatric, neonatal, resuscitation education science, and systems of care topics. They have been developed for resuscitation providers and AHA instructors to focus on the resuscitation science and guidelines recommendations that are most significant or controversial, or those that will result in changes in resuscitation training and practice, and to provide the rationale for the recommendations.
Crush syndrome is a life and limb-threatening condition that can occur as a result of entrapment of the extremities accompanied by extensive damage of a large muscle mass. It can develop following as little as 1 hour of entrapment. Effective medical care is required to reduce the risk of kidney damage, cardiac arrhythmia, and death. Management includes;
- Fluids: IV fluid to provide 1L/h for 24 to 48 hours (depending on evacuation availability)
- Equipment: ECG, laboratory tests for serum potassium and urine myoglobin, Foley catheter with graduated collection system, tourniquets
- Medications: hyperkalemia
- Manage Pain
- Give Antibiotics
- Continuous monitor with portable monitor; 15-minute to hourly vital signs, examination, urine output documented on flow sheet
- IO access provides rapid vascular access in a variety of emergency situations.
- There are several types of IO devices that can be used.
- The humeral site is generally the least painful and quickest to access
- All resuscitation and anaesthetic drugs can be given via the IO route.
- Fluids need to be administered under pressure.
- All devices need to be monitored and a clear handover given.