Non-Invasive Ventilation

Noninvasive ventilation decreased endotracheal intubation rates and hospital mortality in acute hypoxemia non-hypercapnic respiratory failure excluding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema patients. There is no sufficient scientific evidence to recommend bi-level positive airway pressure or helmet due to the limited number of trials available. Large rigorous randomized trials are needed to answer these questions definitely.

 

How to set up Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV)

 

Who Needs It?

  1. Patients with moderate to severe COPD exacerbations
  2. Those patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema with increased work of breathing or hypercapnia
  3. Patients with isolated blunt thoracic trauma
  4. The immunocompromised patient with hypoxic respiratory failure
  5. Patients who require pre-oxygenation prior to intubation

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NIV: What’s the big deal?

 

Terminology:

In general,
Type 1 RF requires CPAP type of NIV.

Type 2 RF requires BPAP type of NIV.

PEEP=EPAP=CPAP i.e. they all mean the same!

So you can say in Type 1 RF(Hypoxic failure), the pressure we provide is PEEP or just EPAP or CPAP. 

For Type 2 RF (Hypercapnic), we provide IPAP as well as EPAP. IPAP is greater than EPAP, PS (Pressure Support is the difference between IPAP and EPAP). For instance if IPAP = 15 and EPAP is 10 then PS = 15-10 i.e. 5cm H2O.