The 2020 Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) are a comprehensive revision of the AHA’s guidelines for adult, pediatric, neonatal, resuscitation education science, and systems of care topics. They have been developed for resuscitation providers and AHA instructors to focus on the resuscitation science and guidelines recommendations that are most significant or controversial, or those that will result in resuscitation training and practice changes and provide the rationale for the recommendations.
|Airway||Intubate → Ventilation tidal volume @ 6-8 mL/kg|
|Place OG or NG tube|
|Confirm endotracheal and OG/NG tube placement with chest x-ray|
|Breathing||SpO2 goal >94% → adjust PEEP & FiO2 to achieve goal|
|EtCO2 goal 30-40 mmHg → adjust respiratory rate to achieve|
|Circulation||12-lead ECG → Activate cardiac catheterization lab for STEMI; consult cardiology for all other patients|
|SBP goal >90 mmHg (MAP > 65 mmHg) → Use fluids, norepinephrine infusion, then epinephrine infusion to achieve goal|
|Place central line|
|Place arterial line|
|Perform point of care ultrasound with the cardiac, lung, and IVC views|
|Send labs, which includes an arterial blood gas and serum lactate|
|Place Foley catheter → Goal urine output 0.5-1 mL/kg/hr|
|Consider CT chest angiography to rule-out a pulmonary embolism|
|Disability||Begin cooling → Goal temperature 32–36°C|
|Consider head CT|
Modifications of assessment of trauma patients in presence (or suspect) of pregnancy
- When indicated a thoracostomy tube should be inserted 1 or 2 intercostal spaces upper than usual.
- Vasopressors has to be avoided in pregnancy.
- Perform L.U.D (Lateral Uterus Displacement) to relieve Inferior Vena Cava compression.
- Transport the severely injuried pregnant patient to an hospital with maternal facility if fetus is viable (≥ 23 weeks).
Resuscitation of the pregnant trauma patient
- The utilization of mechanical chest compressors is not recommended.
- Continuous LUD should be performed during resuscitation.
- No modification in energy level when electrical therapy is needed.
- No modification in timing and doses of ACLS drugs.
- Fetal assessment is not indicated during resuscitation.
- Peri Mortem Cesarean Delivery (PMCD) has to be performed without delay and at the site of cardiac arrest (no transport is indicated), after 4 minutes of ineffective resuscitation attempts.