Minimum criteria for clinical diagnosis (one or more of the following minimum clinical criteria should be present) are as follows:
- Bilateral lower abdominal (uterine) tenderness (sometimes radiating to the legs)
- Cervical motion tenderness – Positive cervical motion tenderness is defined as increased discomfort from a normal pelvic examination, as stated by the patient. Of note, cervical motion tenderness is neither sensitive nor specific for gynaecologic pathology, is a sign of nonspecific peritoneal inflammation,
- Bilateral adnexal tenderness (with or without a palpable mass)
One or more of the following additional criteria can be used to enhance the specificity of the minimum criteria and support a diagnosis of PID:
- oral temperature >101° F (>38.3° C);
- abnormal cervical or vaginal mucopurulent discharge;
- presence of abundant numbers of WBC on saline microscopy of vaginal fluid;
- elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate;
- elevated C-reactive protein; and
- laboratory documentation of cervical infection with N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis.
10. All Shock Explained
|Non-ischemic (high-flow)||Ischemic (low-flow)|
|Physical Exam||Typically painless, not fully tumescent||Painful, fully tumescent with corpus cavernosa rigidity without involvement of corpus spongiosum and glans penis|
|Aetiology||High-flow priapism is extremely rare and most commonly associated with antecedent trauma including blunt trauma, or resulting from needle injury of the cavernosal artery.||Low-flow priapism is caused by impaired relaxation and/or paralysis of cavernosal smooth muscle and in sickle-cell disease|
8. 2016 Guidelines
7. Sepsis Six in 60 Minutes: World Sepsis Day – September 13th
NEW SEPSIS PATHWAY
…for every hour you delay, the patient has a 33% increased risk of death!
6. Did you know about the RULE OF TENS for Fluid Resuscitation in Burns?
Burns Rule of TENS:
1. Estimate burn size (TBSA) to the nearest 10%.
2. Multiply %TBSA x 10 = Initial fluid rate in mL/hr (for adult patients weighing 40 kg to 80 kg).
3. For every 10 kg above 80 kg add 100 mL/hr to the rate.
5. New 2015 Resuscitation Guidelines Compedium
4. LFTs explained
- LFTs = ‘hepatocellular’ or ‘cholestatic’ arrangement based on the pattern of elevation.
- Hepatocellular pattern = transaminases > ALK
- ALT is generally considered to be more specific to liver damage
- Magnitude of aminotransferase elevation => guide initial diagnosis: mild (<5x), moderate (5-10x), or marked elevation (>10x)
- Mild = NAFLD, Drug Induced Liver Injury, Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury
- Moderate = Alcoholic Hepatitis, Biliary Tract Disease
- Severe = Acute Viral Hepatitis, Ischemic Injury, Acetaminophen Toxicity
3. The GCS is out-of-stock
Contrary to common belief, The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is NEVER out-of-stock and the lowest score possible is 3.
- An intubated patient still gets 1 point for verbal meaning they score 3T…there is nothing like a 2T score (at least not in human beings)
- The phrase ‘GCS of 11’ is essentially meaningless, and it is important to break the figure down into its components, such as E3V3M5 = GCS 11.
- The Scale was described in 1974 by Graham Teasdale and Bryan Jennett (Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2:81-4.) and is the most reference paper in medical literature
2. Nairobi Accident Hotspots
The most dangerous time to walk on Nairobi’s streets is on a Friday, around 7am, particularly along Mombasa Road.
1. Salter-Harris Fracture (remember the mnemonic SALTR)
- Slipped (i.e., through growth plate and not involving bone) / Type I
- Above growth plate (i.e., through metaphysis) / Type II (most common)
- Lower growth plate (i.e., through epiphysis) / Type III
- Through (i.e., through metaphysis growth plate and epiphysis) / Type IV
- Rammed (i.e., Crush injury) / Type V (worst prognosis)