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Our Work

Emergency Centre Mapping

Location and definition of public emergency care centres within the Kenyan healthcare facility network is important for advancing the provision of emergency care in Kenya.

ECUIP© | Emergency Care Equipment

Oxygen Gas Manifold
Vital Signs Monitor
ECG Machine
Point of Care Ultrasound

The Emergency Care Equipment project (ECUIP©) aims to empower public healthcare services across the country to better handle medical emergencies through the donation of lifesaving emergency care equipment.


Our Adopt-an-ED campaign aims to refurbish run-down emergency departments (ED) across Kenya and ensure they are equipped with vital emergency medical care equipment and the staff trained to provide quality lifesaving emergency medical care – WATCH VIDEO


Download key emergency medical care resources that can help you strengthen emergency medical care services at your facility or organisation

Our Casualty App, with close to 2K users, provides access to emergency care information and treatment guidelines to help you provide basic first aid if you are a layperson or emergency care if you are a first responder or a healthcare provider.1

Emergency Care Training

EMKF Training programs are designed by our local emergency care experts to meet the needs of healthcare facilities and organisations that may be required to provide emergency care to critically ill or injured patients.

Our monthly Emergency Care Open Mic Sessions are an exciting forum where we give the participants an opportunity to engage directly with both local and international emergency care experts to discuss the latest in evidence-based emergency care affecting our practice locally and internationally. 

Emergency Care Educational Resources for Healthcare Providers

Emergency Care Updates
Emergency Care Algorithms
Clinical Guidelines

These educational resources are evidence-based and are freely downloadable as part of the Emergency Medicine Kenya Foundation’s commitment to Free, Open-Access Medical education (#FOAMed). 

Emergency Care Policies & Legislation

We worked with the Ministry of Health to develop the Kenya Emergency Medical Care Policy 2020-2030 and continue to support the National and County Governments to implement it.

Post-Crash Emergency Care

The Injury Prevention and Safety Initiative (TIPSI©) by the Emergency Medicine Kenya Foundation (EMKF) aims to ensure timely, accessible and quality lifesaving emergency care for road traffic crash survivors to avoid preventable death and disability and limit the severity of the injury and the suffering.


Our symposia gather delegates from across Kenya and worldwide to discuss emergency care development and collaborations.

18 Hours Film

18 Hours is an award-winning Kenyan fictional film based on true events. The film follows a rookie paramedic who spends 18 hours in an ambulance  fighting for the life of a road crash victim who struggles to get admission into hospital.  Rocque Pictures partnered with Emergency Medicine Kenya Foundation and Chapter One on this project.

Media Interviews

Click  to see all the videos in the series

Peer-reviewed Publications

Nyamu N, Sugut J, Mochache T, Kimeu P, Mukundi G, Ngugi D, Njonjo S, Mustafa A, Mbuvi P, Nyagaki E, Kironji G, Wanjiku G, Wachira B.

Crit Care Clin. 2022 Oct;38(4):839-852. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2022.06.012.


One of the major obstacles to delivering effective emergency care in developing countries is a lack of adequate training. Facility-oriented, simulation-based emergency care training programs developed locally present an opportunity to improve the quality of emergency care in low- and middle-income countries. We describe the development and implementation of the emergency care course in Kenya and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, challenges, and recommendations for locally developed facility-oriented simulation-based emergency care training.

Lee, J.A., Armes, L. & Wachira, B.W.

Int J Emerg Med. 2022 Jun 28;15(1):30. doi: 10.1186/s12245-022-00432-6.

Background: Road traffic injuries are a large and growing cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. Systematic data collection for traffic incidents in Kenya is lacking and in many low- and middle-income countries available data sources are disparate or missing altogether. Many Kenyans use social media platforms, including Twitter; many road traffic incidents are publicly reported on the microblog platform. This study is a prospective cohort analysis of all tweets related to road traffic incidents in Kenya over a 24-month period (February 2019 to January 2021).

Results: A substantial number of unique road incidents (3882) from across Kenya were recorded during the 24-month study period. The details available for each incident are widely variable, as reported and posted on Twitter. Particular times of day and days of the week had a higher incidence of reported road traffic incidents. A total of 2043 injuries and 1503 fatalities were recorded.

Conclusions: Twitter and other digital social media platforms can provide a novel source for road traffic incident and injury data in a low- and middle-income country. The data collected allows for the potential identification of local and national trends and provides opportunities to advocate for improved roadways and health systems for the emergent care from road traffic incidents and associated traumatic injuries.

Wanjiku GW, Bell G, Wachira B.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2018; 18: 607.


A novel point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) training program was developed to train rural healthcare providers in Kenya on the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST), thoracic ultrasound, basic echocardiography, and focused obstetric ultrasonography. The program includes a multimedia manual, pre-course testing, 1-day hands-on training, post-testing, 3-month post-course evaluation, and scheduled refresher training. This study evaluates the impact of the course on PoCUS knowledge and skills. Competency results were compared based on number of previous training/refresher sessions and time elapsed since prior training.


Trainees were evaluated using a computer-based, 30 question, multiple-choice test, a standardized observed structured clinical exam (OSCE), and a survey on their ultrasound use over the previous 3 months.


Thirty-three trainees were evaluated at 21 different facilities. All trainees completed the written exam, and 32 completed the OSCE. Nine trainees out of 33 (27.3%) passed the written test. Trainees with two or more prior training sessions had statistically significant increases in their written test scores, while those with only one prior training session maintained their test scores. Time elapsed since last training was not associated with statistically significant differences in mean written test scores. Mean image quality scores (95% confidence interval) were 2.65 (2.37–2.93) for FAST, 2.41 (2.03–2.78) for thoracic, 2.22 (1.89–2.55) for cardiac, and 2.95 (2.67–3.24) for obstetric exams. There was a trend towards increased mean image quality scores with increases in the number of prior training sessions, and a trend towards decreased image quality with increased time elapsed since previous training. Forty percent of trainees reported performing more than 20 scans in the previous 3 months, while 22% reported less than 10 scans in the previous 3 months. Second and third trimester focused obstetric ultrasound was the most frequently performed scan type. Frequency of scanning was positively correlated with written test scores and image quality scores.


This novel training program has the potential to improve PoCUS knowledge and skills amongst rural healthcare providers in Kenya. There is an ongoing need to increase refresher/re-training opportunities and to enhance frequency of scanning in order to improve PoCUS competency.

Nicholson B, McCollough C, Wachira B, Mould-Millman NK.

Afr J Emerg Med. 2017 Dec;7(4):157-159. doi: 10.1016/j.afjem.2017.06.002. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Background: Over the past twenty years, Kenya has been developing many important components of a prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) system. This is due to the ever-increasing demand for emergency medical care across the country. To better inform the next phase of this development, we undertook an assessment of the current state of EMS training in Kenya.

Methods: A group of international and Kenyan experts with relevant EMS and educational expertise conducted an observational qualitative assessment of Kenyan EMS training institutions in 2016. Three assessment techniques were utilised: semi-structured interviews, document review, and structured observations. Recommendations were reached through a consensus process amongst the assessment team.

Results: Key findings include: (i) No national or state-level policy exists that establishes levels of EMS providers or expected fund of knowledge and skills; (ii) Training institutions have independently created their own individual training standards; (iii) Training materials are not adapted for the local context; (iv) The foundation of basic anatomy and physiology education is weak; (v) Training does not focus on symptom- or syndrome-based complaints; (vi) Students had difficulty applying foundational classroom knowledge in simulations and clinical encounters; (vii) There is limited emphasis on complex critical thinking.

Discussion: Standardisation of training is needed in Kenya, including clearly defined levels of providers and expected learning outcomes. A nationally standardised EMS provider scope of practice may also help focus EMS education. Instructors must reinforce basic anatomy and physiology amongst all trainees to establish a robust foundation, then layer on field experience before trainees receive advanced training. Training graduates should be EMS providers who approach patient care with high-order symptom- or syndrome-based critical thinking. While these recommendations are specific to the Kenyan EMS environment, they may have wider applicability to other developing EMS systems in resource-limited settings.

Bell G, Wachira B, Denning G.

Afr J Emerg Med. 2016 Sep; 6(3): 132–137.


Ultrasound is an effective and affordable clinical diagnostic tool highly attractive for use in low and middle income countries (LMICs), but access to training programs in these countries is limited. The objective of our study was to develop and pilot a program for healthcare providers in Kenya in the use of point-of-care ultrasound.


Trainees were recruited in district hospitals for participation in three all-day workshops held every 3–5 months from September 2013 through November 2014. Prior to the initial workshop, trainees were asked to study a training manual, and a knowledge test was administered. Ultrasound-credentialed emergency physicians provided brief didactic lessons then hands-on training for eFAST and obstetric training. This was followed by an observed assessment of scanning image quality (IM) and diagnostic interpretation (IN).


Eighty-one trainees enrolled in four initial training sessions and 30 attended at least one refresher session. Among those trainees who attended refresher sessions, there was an increase in the proportion passing both the knowledge and practical tests at the follow-up, as compared to the initial session. Overall, mean practical skill scores also trended toward an increase over time, with a significantly higher mean score in November 2014 (2.64 + 0.38, p = 0.02) as compared to March 2014 (2.26 + 0.54), p < 0.05. Pre-workshop preparation evolved over time with the goal of maximizing trainee readiness for the hands-on course. A strong correlation was observed between knowledge and practical skill scores illustrating the importance of pre-workshop training.


Our pilot workshop showed promise in promoting knowledge and practical skills among participants, as well as increasing use in patient care. Results also suggest that refresher training may provide additional benefits for some participants. These findings provide a strong rationale for expanding the training program and for measuring its clinical impact.

Scientific Posters

Presented as an e-Poster presentation at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Conference (May 2021).

Presented as a Poster presentation at the Emergency Medicine Society of South Africa (EMSSA) International Conference. (Nov 2019)

Presented as a Poster presentation at the Emergency Medicine Society of South Africa (EMSSA) International Conference (Nov 2019)