- Prepare yourself: familiarize with the patients background, medical info and anticipate some likely questions
- Environment: arrange for privacy, minimize interruptions and time-constraints…
- Establish a connection with the patient/relatives; Involve patients/relatives family, nurses etc. Ensure you are talking to the right patient/relatives
P = Assessing the patients Perceptions
- How much do they know? What happened earlier/prior to hospital arrival?
- Correct any errors or gaps in patient’s knowledge
I = Obtaining the patients/relatives Invitation
- How much does the patient/relative want to know?
- Little detail/too much detail?
K = Giving Knowledge and information to the patient/relatives
- Start with a warning shot e.g. I’m afraid to inform you or I’m sorry to inform you…
- Clear and simple information, e.g. Mr. X is dead, BUT avoid excessive bluntness e.g. You are going to die from your cancer
- Avoid medical jargon e.g. CPR, Defibrillation, Gone to a better place
- Check understanding
E = Addressing the patients/relatives Emotions
- Give time to express feelings
- Observe and acknowledge emotions
- Show empathy
- Encourage questions and allow time
S = Strategy and Summary
- Clear plans of what next
- Offer follow-up support