Kenya Emergency Medical Care Policy 2020-2030

The Kenya Emergency Medical Care (EMC) Policy 2020-2030 is the first-ever policy in Kenya that seeks to establish a working Emergency Medical Care (EMC) System as a key component of the healthcare system in the country. The policy also speaks to the World Health Assembly resolution WHA 72.16 of 21 May 2019 which urged member states to create policies for sustainable funding, effective governance and universal access to safe, high-quality, needs-based emergency care for all as part of universal health coverage. In developing this policy, the Ministry of Health (MOH) aims to ensure access to the highest standards of emergency medical care in Kenya as envisioned in The Constitution of Kenya (2010) and the Health Act (2017) which guarantees every Kenyan the right to emergency medical treatment.

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Community Health Workers in Emergency Care

CHWs have shown great efficacy in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with multiple disease categories and help to fill healthcare worker shortages worldwide. Utilising CHWs to provide emergency care in the community requires a focus on their formal training and can strengthen the emergency care system overall.

Emergency Hotlines

Emergency Hotlines establish a reliable fixed-line system that is able to improve emergency care and reduce mortality and morbidity through improved communication and collaboration with emergency care centres.

Effective Positioning of Emergency Care Centres in Kenya

In order to provide quality emergency care, emergency care centres need to be developed with an understanding of current geographical disparities and careful planning to create a network of emergency care centres that is sufficient to meet the needs of the population. This is key to ensure country-wide access to emergency care within the “golden hour” window.

Road Traffic Crash Response & Emergency Medical Care

The utilisation of bystander training programs targeted at groups such as boda-boda riders and PSV drivers can assist in closing prehospital emergency care management gaps; while the creation of trauma centres institutes the first step in creating a trauma network to more efficiently address post-crash emergency care.

Defining Emergency Care Centres across Kenya

Emergency care is a key component of any healthcare system in protecting the health of a population and preventing mortality and morbidity. Right to emergency care is protected in Kenya, but in order to optimise this, there must be the promotion of a common language and universal knowledge.

Emergency Medical Care: The Neglected Disease in Kenya

On 23rd July 2020, the Emergency Medicine Kenya (EMK) Foundation presented this report to The Senate Standing Committee on Health, The Republic of Kenya that summarises the current practice of emergency medical care in Kenya and identifies priority actions for use by policymakers and other stakeholders as a roadmap toward strengthening emergency care in the country.

72nd World Health Assembly adopts resolution on emergency and trauma care

Delegates to the 72nd World Health Assembly have adopted a resolution on emergency and trauma care aimed at helping countries to ensure timely care for the acutely ill and injured. It is estimated that more than half of deaths in low- and middle-income countries result from conditions that could be treated with prehospital and emergency care, including injuries; infections; acute exacerbations of cancer, diabetes and other noncommunicable diseases; and complications of pregnancy. Effective emergency care systems save lives.

During the discussions, 22 Member States spoke in support of the resolution, which was tabled by the Governments of Ethiopia and Eswatini and co-sponsored by over 30 countries. In their remarks, they praised the sponsoring countries for bringing attention to this area, committed to the recommended actions and requested near-term WHO support for specific activities, including: training for all cadres of health workers, system- and facility-level assessments, implementing standards for essential equipment and processes at each level of the health system, and data collection and quality improvement. They also emphasized the importance of fully integrating emergency care into ongoing universal health coverage planning processes.

“No one should die for the lack of access to emergency care, an essential part of universal health coverage,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “We have simple, affordable and proven interventions that save lives. All people around the world should have access to the timely, life-saving care they deserve.”

Recent studies have ranked components of emergency care as among the most cost-effective public health interventions. Strengthening prehospital care by training community-based providers and using staffed community ambulances has been estimated to cost less than US$ 100 per life saved, and has been shown to reduce mortality by 25-50% in some low- and middle-income country contexts.

The World Health Assembly resolution seeks to overcome some of the main challenges facing countries, including poor coordination of prehospital and facility-based care; limited or no coverage of prehospital systems, especially in rural areas; shortage of fixed staff assigned to emergency units; lack of standards for clinical management and documentation; and insufficient funding. In addition, a lack of security for prehospital and facility-based emergency care staff remains a challenge in many countries.

The resolution suggests that all Member States, regardless of available resources, can take steps towards strengthening their emergency care systems. Recommended activities for Member States include creating policies to ensure universal access to emergency care for all; conducting a WHO emergency care system assessment to identify gaps and priorities for action; developing clinical protocols identified in the WHO Emergency Care Systems Framework; and providing emergency care training for all relevant health providers. The WHO Secretariat is invited to expand its technical support to Member States. 

In the coming years much of WHO’s support to Member States on emergency and trauma care will be provided through the Global Emergency and Trauma Care Initiative, launched with the AO Foundation in December 2018. The Initiative seeks to rapidly increase capacities to provide quality emergency care in countries and to foster awareness through a global advocacy campaign about its potential to save lives.  

Well-organized emergency care is a key mechanism for achieving a range of Sustainable Development Goal targets, including those on universal health coverage, road safety, maternal and child health, noncommunicable diseases, infectious diseases, disasters and violence. It also helps WHO to fulfill the mandate of its Thirteenth General Programme of Work 2019-2023 to strengthen health systems, widen coverage of essential health services and improve integrated service delivery.