Top 10 Posts of 2016

 

10. All Shock Explained

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9. Priapism

Priapism

Non-ischemic (high-flow) Ischemic (low-flow)
Physical Exam Typically painless, not fully tumescent Painful, fully tumescent with corpus cavernosa rigidity without involvement of corpus spongiosum and glans penis
Aetiology High-flow priapism is extremely rare and most commonly associated with antecedent trauma including blunt trauma, or resulting from needle injury of the cavernosal artery. Low-flow priapism is caused by impaired relaxation and/or paralysis of cavernosal smooth muscle and in sickle-cell disease
Management NOT Emergency Emergency

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8. 2016 Guidelines

 

 

 


7. Sepsis Six in 60 Minutes: World Sepsis Day – September 13th

Sepsis

NEW SEPSIS PATHWAY

FLUIDS

ANTIBIOTICS

…for every hour you delay, the patient has a 33% increased risk of death!

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LACTATE


6. Did you know about the RULE OF TENS for Fluid Resuscitation in Burns?

Burns Rule of TENS:

1. Estimate burn size (TBSA) to the nearest 10%.
2. Multiply %TBSA x 10 = Initial fluid rate in mL/hr (for adult patients weighing 40 kg to 80 kg).
3. For every 10 kg above 80 kg add 100 mL/hr to the rate.

 

 


5. New 2015 Resuscitation Guidelines Compedium

BLS

 

 

 

 


4. LFTs explained

LFTs Explained

  • LFTs = ‘hepatocellular’ or ‘cholestatic’ arrangement based on the pattern of elevation.
    • Hepatocellular pattern = transaminases >  ALK
  • ALT is generally considered to be more specific to liver damage
  • Magnitude of aminotransferase elevation => guide initial diagnosis: mild (<5x), moderate (5-10x), or marked elevation (>10x)
    • Mild = NAFLD, Drug Induced Liver Injury, Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury
    • Moderate = Alcoholic Hepatitis, Biliary Tract Disease
    • Severe = Acute Viral Hepatitis, Ischemic Injury, Acetaminophen Toxicity

 

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3. The GCS is out-of-stock

GCS

Contrary to common belief, The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is NEVER out-of-stock and the lowest score possible is 3.

  • An intubated patient still gets 1 point for verbal meaning they score 3T…there is nothing like a 2T score (at least not in human beings)
  • The phrase ‘GCS of 11’ is essentially meaningless, and it is important to break the figure down into its components, such as E3V3M5 = GCS 11.
  • The Scale was described in 1974 by Graham Teasdale and Bryan Jennett (Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2:81-4.) and is the most reference paper in medical literature

 

 


2. Nairobi Accident Hotspots

Accident Hotspots

The most dangerous time to walk on Nairobi’s streets is on a Friday, around 7am, particularly along  Mombasa Road.

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1. Salter-Harris Fracture (remember the mnemonic SALTR)

  1. Slipped (i.e., through growth plate and not involving bone) / Type I
  2. Above growth plate (i.e., through metaphysis) / Type II (most common)
  3. Lower growth plate (i.e., through epiphysis) / Type III
  4. Through (i.e., through metaphysis growth plate and epiphysis) / Type IV
  5. Rammed (i.e., Crush injury) / Type V (worst prognosis)

 

TIA (Transient Ischaemic Attack)

tia_stroke_risk_2013

  • TIA is defined as a brief episode of neurologic dysfunction with no permanent infarction.
  • Head CT noncontrast is not reliable for acute ischemia, but it can find alternative conditions necessitating management. MRI with DWI displays greater diagnostic ability.
  • Risk scores that predict future stroke are not reliable when used alone.
  • Patients are typically admitted for inpatient management due to this risk of future stroke.

 

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Rapid Sequence Intubation Medications

Induction Agents

Medication Weight-Based Dosing Time to Onset of Action Adverse Effects/

Contraindications

Etomidate 0.3 mg/kg <1 minute May cause clinically insignificant adrenal suppression.
Ketamine 1-2 mg/kg 1-3 minutes May increase blood pressure. May cause hypersalivation.
Propofol 2 mg/kg <1 minute May cause hypotension. Cardiac depressant. Contraindicated in egg/soybean allergy
Midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 1-5 minutes May cause hypotension

Paralytics

Medication Weight-Based Dosing Time to Onset of Action Adverse Effects/

Contraindications

Succinylcholine 1.5 – 2.0 mg/kg 45-60 seconds Bradycardia. Malignant hyperthermia. Hyperkalemia.
Rocuronium 1.2 mg/kg 45-60 seconds
Vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg 2-4 minutes Questionable RSI utility when rocuronium available

Post-Intubation Sedation

Medication Weight-Based Dosing Notes
Midazolam 0.04-0.2 mg/kg/hr Short duration, but with long-term use has long half-life. Often used with fentanyl
Propofol 5-80 mcg/kg/min Propofol Infusion Syndrome with long term use: monitor TG, amylase/lipase
Dexmedetomidine 0.2-0.7 mcg/kg/hr
Ketamine 0.5-1 mg/kg/hr May decrease bronchospasm
Fentanyl 1-2 mcg/kg bolus25-250 mcg/hr

 

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis Treatment

What are the cornerstones for bronchiolitis treatment? Supportive care! This means ensuring adequate hydration and oxygenation. A limited amount of suctioning to clear the nares might be beneficial. Supplemental oxygen may be necessary if oxygen saturations are < 90% persistently. Antipyretics (acetaminophen or ibuprofen) for infants with high fever are often useful adjuncts for treatment and can reduce irritability.

 

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