Myth 1: The Urine Is Cloudy and Smells Bad. My Patient Has a UTI
Myth 2: The Urine Has Bacteria Present. My Patient Has a UTI. Also See Myth 8
Myth 3: My Patient’s Urine Sample Has >5 Squamous Epithelial Cells per Low-Power Field and the Culture is Positive. Because the Culture is Positive, I Can Disregard the Epithelial Cell Count and Treat the UTI
Myth 4: The Urine Has Positive Leukocyte Esterase. My Patient Should Have a Urine Culture Performed, Has a UTI, and Needs Antibiotics
Myth 5: My Patient Has Pyuria. They Must Have a UTI
Myth 6: The Urine Has Nitrates Present. My Patient Has a UTI
Myth 7: All Findings of Bacteria in a Catheterized Urine Sample Should Be Diagnosed as a UTI
Myth 8: Patients with Bacteriuria Will Progress to a UTI and Should Therefore Be Treated
Myth 9: Falls and Acute Altered Mental Status Changes in the Elderly Patient Are Usually Caused by UTI
Myth 10: The Presence of Yeast or Candida in the Urine, Especially in Patients with Indwelling Urinary Catheters, Indicates a Candida UTI and Needs to Be Treated
Bedside Index of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP), a simple tool ideal for rapid risk-stratification. The tool is based on a 5-point score, derived from 5 parameters collected within a patient’s first 24 hours in hospital.
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine are both acceptable, evidence-based approaches to hemodynamic support in septic shock.
- Individual patient responsiveness to vasopressors is variable and unpredictable.
- Some patients respond better to epinephrine than norepinephrine.
- For patients who are not responding well to norepinephrine, it is reasonable to empirically trial a low dose of epinephrine (“epinephrine challenge”).